Part II: Engaging Learners
All About Digital Earth Watch—Part II: Engaging Learners—Chapter 7
OK, so we have all these images from cameras hand-held or mounted on satellites, kites, balloons, tripods or you-name-it. And we have this software to analyze the images with. Investigations and Challenges so we put both Investigations and Challenges under Activities in the DEW left navigation bar. We use the term Challenges for relatively short activities that easily fit into one class period
or less. Investigations are longer, more complicated activities, or series of challenges that
may extend beyond one class period.In the three subsequent sections there are descriptions of larger scale
projects that provide opportunities for student investigations: Picture
Post, Forest Watch, and Global Systems Science (GSS). The table below summarizes the Challenges and Investigations that can be found on the DEW website. __/'\_/'\_/'\__
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International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA)
Standards for Technological Literacy
1. Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of technology. __/'\_/'\_/'\__
National Science Education StandardsGRADES 5-8 Understandings about Scientific Inquiry - Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations. (p. 148)
- Light interacts with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, or scattering (including reflection). To see an object, light from that object— emitted by or scattered from it—must enter the eye. (p. 155)
- The number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and abiotic factors, such as quantity of light and water, range of temperatures,and soil composition. Given adequate biotic and abiotic resources and no disease or predators, populations (including humans) increase at rapid rates. Lack of resources and other factors, such as predation and climate,limit the growth of populations in specific niches in the ecosystem. (p. 158)
- Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. Oceans have a major effect on climate, because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat. (p. 160)
- Science and technology are reciprocal. Science helps drive technology, as it addresses questions that demand more sophisticated instruments and provides principles for better instrumentation and technique. Technology is essential to science, because it provides instruments and techniques that enable observations of objects and phenomena that are otherwise unobservable due to factors such as quantity, distance, location, size, and speed. Technology also provides tools for investigations, inquiry, and analysis. (p. 166)
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Science in Personal and Social Perspectives - Causes of environmental degradation
- and resource depletion vary from region to region and from country to country. (p. 168)
- Human activities also can induce hazards through resource acquisition,urban growth,land-use decisions, and waste disposal. Such activities can accelerate many natural changes. (p. 168)
- Societal challenges often inspire questions for scientific research, and social priorities often influence research priori- ties through the availability of funding for research. (p. 169)
- Technology influences society through its products and processes. Technology influences the quality of life and the ways people act and interact. Technological changes are often accompanied by social, political, and economic changes that can be beneficial or detrimental to individuals and to society. Social needs,attitudes, and values influence the direction of technological development. (p. 169)
Physical Science - Interactions of Energy and Matter - Waves, including sound and seismic waves,waves on water, and light waves, have energy and can transfer energy when they interact with matter. (p. 180)
- Each kind of atom or molecule can gain or lose energy only in particular discrete amounts and thus can absorb and emit light only at wavelengths corresponding to these amounts. These wavelengths can be used to identify the substance. (p. 180-181)
- Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of infinite size, but environments and resources are finite. This fundamental tension has profound effects on the interactions between organisms.(p. 186)
- Human beings live within the world’s ecosystems. Increasingly, humans modi- fy ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening current global stability, and if not addressed, ecosystems will be irreversibly affected. (p. 186)
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Earth Science- Heating of earth’s surface and atmosphere by the sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents. (p. 189)
- Global climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun at and near the earth’s surface. This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover and the earth’s rotation, and static conditions such as the position of mountain ranges and oceans. (p. 189)
- Science and technology are pursued for different purposes. Scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the natural world, and technological design is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems. Technology, by its nature, has a more direct effect on society than science because its purpose is to solve human problems, help humans adapt, and fulfill human aspirations. (p. 192)
- Natural ecosystems provide an array of basic processes that affect humans. Those processes include maintenance of the quality of the atmosphere, generation of soils, control of the hydrologic cycle, disposal of wastes, and recycling of nutrients. Humans are changing many of these basic processes, and the changes may be detrimental to humans. (p. 198)
- Materials from human societies affect both physical and chemical cycles of the earth. (p. 198)
- Many factors influence environmental quality. Factors that students might investigate include population growth, resource use, population distribution, overconsumption, the capacity of technology to solve problems, poverty, the role of economic, political, and religious views , and different ways humans view the earth. (p. 198)
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National Council of the Teachers of MathematicsMath Standards and Expectations (...see also Common Core Mathematics Standards)Number and OperationsUnderstand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems; understand and use ratios and proportions to represent quantitative relationships; Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– develop, analyze, and explain methods for solving problems involving proportions, such as scaling and finding equivalent ratios. AlgebraUnderstand patterns, relations, and functions Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– represent, analyze, and generalize a variety of patterns with tables, graphs, words, and, when possible, symbolic rules; Grades 9–12 Expectations: students should– interpret representations of functions of two variables Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– model and solve contextualized problems using various representations, such as graphs, tables, and equations. Grades 9–12 Expectations: students should– draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled. Analyze change in various contexts Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– use graphs to analyze the nature of changes in quantities in linear relationships. Grades 9–12 Expectations: students should– approximate and interpret rates of change from graphical and numerical data. Geometry StandardSpecify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– use coordinate geometry to represent and examine the properties of geometric shapes; Grades 9–12 Expectations: all students should– use Cartesian coordinates and other coordinate systems, such as navigational, polar, or spherical systems, to analyze geometric situations; Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– recognize and apply geometric ideas and relationships in areas outside the mathematics classroom, such as art, science, and everyday life. Grades 9–12 Expectations: students should– use geometric ideas to solve problems in, and gain insights into, other disciplines and other areas of interest such as art and architecture. Measurement StandardUnderstand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement Grades 6–8 Expectations:students should– understand both metric and customary systems of measurement; understand relationships among units and convert from one unit to another within the same system; understand, select, and use units of appropriate size and type to measure angles, perimeter, area, surface area, and volume. Grades 9–12 Expectations: students should– make decisions about units and scales that are appropriate for problem situations involving measurement Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements. Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– select and apply techniques and tools to accurately find length, area, volume, and angle measures to appropriate levels of precision; develop and use formulas to determine the circumference of circles and the area of triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and circles and develop strategies to find the area of more-complex shapes; solve problems involving scale factors, using ratio and proportion; Grades 9–12 Expectations: students should– analyze precision, accuracy, and approximate error in measurement situations; apply informal concepts of successive approximation, upper and lower bounds, and limit in measurement situations; Data Analysis and ProbabilityFormulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– formulate questions, design studies, and collect data about a characteristic shared by two populations or different characteristics within one population; select, create, and use appropriate graphical representations of data, including histograms, box plots, and scatterplots. Grades 9–12 Expectations: students should– understand histograms, parallel box plots, and scatterplots and use them to display data; Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– discuss and understand the correspondence between data sets and their graphical representations, especially histograms, stem-and-leaf plots, box plots, and scatterplots. Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data Grades 6–8 Expectations: students should– use observations about differences between two or more samples to make conjectures about the populations from which the samples were taken; make conjectures about possible relationships between two characteristics of a sample on the basis of scatterplots of the data and approximate lines of fit; use conjectures to formulate new questions and plan new studies to answer them. Process StandardsProblem Solving Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to— Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving Communication Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to— Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others; Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely. Connections Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to— Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics Representation Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to— Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena |